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  • Need to provide adequate training on these new technologies to both students and teachers and to thoroughly address ethical and privacy issues is emphasised to ensure the success of these transformations.
  • The creation of content in intelligent tutoring systems may be affected by the difference in programming and teaching that any culture might produce, with possible biases favouring learners belonging to the culture of the producer of the said system
  • The availability of the various technical equipment, the lack of adequate staff to handle the technological tools, and the need to train pupils in their use (Wang-Kin, 2021; Mallik & Gangopadhyay, 2023).
  • The possibility of equitable treatment among students. For example, ITS is not always efficient because the provision of personalized instruction for all may be hindered by differing technological and economic development among states (Zanettia et al., 2020).


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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.